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6A 语法重点汇总

🏷️ 英语

Unit 1. The King's new clothes

1. 一般过去时(1)

我们用一般过去时来谈论在过去发生的动作或存在的状态。如:

Yesterday Tom asked me a funny question. 昨天汤姆问了我一个很好笑的问题。
He was a teacher three years ago. 他三年前是一名老师。

  • 在一般过去时的句子中,常带有明显的表示过去时间的状语。如 just nowyesterdayyesterday morning/afternoon/eveninglast night/week/month/yeartwo days/a week/three years agoin 1999/2008

    I made the bed just now. 我刚刚把床铺好。
    He left for ShangHai last night. 他昨晚去了上海。

  • 动词过去式的变化规则如下:

    • 一般的谓语动词后面直接加 ed :ask - asked
    • 以不发音的 e 结尾的动词,直接加 d :arrive - arrived
    • 以辅音字母加 y 结尾的动词,去掉 y 加 ied : study - studied
    • 以一个辅音字母结尾的重读闭音节动词,双写最后一个辅音字母,再加 ed : shop - shopped
  • 动词过去式的不规则变化

    • 保持不变:set - set、 cut - cut
    • 元音有变化:come - came、draw - dred
    • 辅音有变化:lend - lent、build - built
    • 元音、辅音均有变化:catch - caught、buy - bought
    • 其他:am/is - was、are - were

2. 本单元出现的的动词过去式

  • visit - visited
  • show - showed
  • walk - walked
  • look - looked
  • shout - shouted
  • point - pointed
  • laugh - laughed
  • want - wanted
  • pick - picked
  • turn - turned
  • like - liked
  • live - lived

Unit 2. What a day!

1. 一般过去时(2)不规则动词过去式变化表

No.原型一般过去式意思
1am/iswas
2arewere
3becomebecame成为;变成
4beginbegan开始
5bitebit
6blowblew
7breakbroke打破
8bringbrought拿来;带来
9buildbuilt构筑;建造
10burnburned/burnt燃烧
11buybought购买;买
12cancould可以;能;会
13catchcaught赶上;抓捕
14comecame来;来到
15cutcut切;割;削;剪
16dodid做;干;行动
17drawdrew
18drinkdrank喝;饮
19drivedrove开车;驾驶
20eatate
21feelfelt感到;觉得
22findfound找到
23fitfit合适
24flyflew飞行
25forgetforgot忘记;忘却
26getgot得到
27givegave给;授予
28gowent
29growgrew生长
30havehad得(病);有
31hearheard听见;听说
32hidehid隐藏
33hurthurt受伤
34keepkept保持
35knowknew知道;了解
36learnlearned/learnt学习
37leaveleft离去;出发
38letlet允许;让
39loselost失去;丧失
40makemade使;做;制作
41maymight可能;可以
42meanmeant表示…的意思
43meetmet遇见;相逢
44putput放;摆;装
45readread读;阅
46riderode
47ringrang(铃)响
48riserose上升
49runran跑;奔跑
50saysaid说;讲
51seesaw看见
52sendsent发送;寄;派;遣
53setset放;置
54shallshould应该
55shineshone发光
56shutshut观赏(门、窗等)
57singsang唱;唱歌
58sitsat
59sleepslept睡;睡觉
60smellsmelled/smelt
61speakspoke说;说话
62spendspent度过
63standstood站立
64stickstuck粘贴
65swimswam游泳
66taketook拿;花费(时间);
67teachtaught教;讲授
68telltold告诉;讲述
69thinkthought想;思考
70throwthrew
71understandunderstood理解
72wakewoke醒来
73wearwore穿着
74willwould将要
75winwon赢;获胜
76writewrote书写

Unit 3. Holiday fun

1. 一般过去时(3)

一般过去时的否定句式和疑问句式如下:

否定句

  • 行为动词一般过去时的否定形式是在行为动词前加 did not,缩写形式是 ditn't, 其后的动词为原型。如:

    • He did not go there yesterday. 他昨天没有去那里。
    • I dit not help him with his English last week. 上周我没有帮助他学英语。
  • be 动词 构成的一般过去时的否定形式是在 waswere 后面直接加 not。如

    • I was not here on hour age. 一个小时前我不在这里。
    • They were not happy just now. 刚才他们并不开心。

一般疑问句

  • 由行为动词构成的一般过去时改为疑问句,在句首加助动词 did,其后的动词为原形。回答用 Yes, 主语 + did.No, 主语 + didn't. 。如:

    • Did you go to the party last night? 昨天晚上你参加聚会了吗?
    • Yes, I did. / No. I didn't. 是的,我去了。 / 不,我没去。
  • be 动词 构成的一般过去时改为疑问句,直接将 be 动词 提前至句首,回答用 Yes, 主语 + was/were. 或 No, 主语 + wasn't / weren't. 。如

    • Were you happy yesterday? 昨天你开心吗?
    • Yes, I was. 是的,我很开心。
    • Were they here last night? 他们昨晚在这里吗?
    • No, they weren't. 不,他们不在这里。

特殊疑问句

  • 一般过去时的特殊疑问句结构: 疑问词 + did + 主语 + 动词原形 + ... ... ? 例如:

    • Where did you go for the holiday?

      I went to a farm. (重在回答地点)

    • What did you do for the holiday?

      I visited the Shanghai Museum. (重在事情)

    • Why did you call me?

      Because I wanted to give you the fish. (重在陈述原因)

    • How was your holiday?

      It was great fun. (重在表达感受)

Unit 4. Then and now

1. cancould 辨析

cancould 都是 情态动词

  • 表示体力或脑力方面的能力

    一般来说, can 表示 现在的能力could 表示 过去的能力。如:

    • He can speak a little English now.
    • She could play piano when she was five.
  • 表示 “(请求允许)可以”

    可以用在一般现在时的句子中,但是 could 在语气上显得更加委婉客气些。如:

    • Can I use your pen?
    • Could I have a look at your picture?
  • 表示可能性

    cancould 也都可以用在一般现在时的句子中,但是 can 表示的可能性比 could。如:

    • Anybody can make mistakes.
    • The weather here could be very coud in winter.

2. 区别一般现在时和一般过去时:主要看时间状语来判读。

  1. 一般过去时表示在过去的某一时间内发生的动作或存在的状态或过去习惯性、反复性发生的动作。

    • 一般过去时常用的时间状语有:

      • yesterday 及相关短语

        • yesterday morning/afternoon/evening
        • at two o'clock yesterday
        • the day before yesterday
      • last + 时间名称

        • last night
        • last year
        • last winter
        • last month
        • last week
      • 一段时间 + ago

        • two years ago
        • a short time ago
        • (half) an hour ago
      • 其它

        • just now
        • in 1998
        • when I was 5 years old
    • 例句:

      • I was in the classroom yesterday morning.
      • I did shopping on the Internet the day before yesterday.
      • He was at school last Tuesday.
      • He lived in China last year.
      • They were in the playground half an hour ago.
      • Twenty years ago, he worked on a small farm.
      • Were they here just now?
      • I could swim when I was 10 years old.
  2. 一般现在时表示事物或人物的特征、状态;表示经常性或习惯性发生的动作或存在的状态;表示客观事实或普遍真理。

    一般现在时中常用的有:

    • always
    • usually
    • often
    • sometimes
    • at weekends
    • on Monday
    • every day/week/month/year/morning/night

Unit 5. Signs

1. Signs

认识标志,并能用英文表达。常见的标志语有:

  1. No 开头,表示禁止做某事,后面动词要用 ing 形式,如:

    • No swimming
    • No littering
    • No parking
  2. don't 或者 do not 开头,也表示禁止做某事,不过后面动词要用原形,整句为祈使句。 如:

    • Do not touch.
    • Don't eat.
  3. 以动词原形开头的,如

    • Be quiet!

2. Public signs

本单元出现了许多标志图案,要求大家能用英文就标志进行交流和表达。

句型为:

  • -- What does it mean?
  • -- It means you can/can't ...
Signs(标志)Meaning(意思)Description(描述)
-No eating or drinking.It means you can't eat or drink here.
-No littering.It means you can't litter here.
-No Parking.It means you can't park here.
-No smoking.It means you can't smoke here.
-Danger!It means it's dangerous here.
-Wet floor.It means the floor is wet. Be careful.
-No picking flowers.It means you can't pick flowers.
-No climbing.It means you can't climb tree.
-Parking.It means you can park here.
-No fishing.It means you can't fish here.
-No swimming.It means you can't swim here.
-School.It means we should look out for the children.
-No pets.It means you can't take pets here.
-Be quiet.It means you can't make noise here.
-Keep off the grass.It means you can't walk on the grass.
-No feeding.It means you can't feed the animals.
-No running.It means you can't run here.
-Restaurant here.It means you can take dinner here.

Unit 6. Keep our city clean

1. make + 复合宾语(名词或代词 + 形容词) 表示“使......变得......”

  • What makes the air dirty?
  • Rubbish makes the street messy and dirty.
  • Furit can make us healthy and strong.
  • The film made me sad.
  • The monkey made the lion angry.

2. keep + 复合宾语(宾语 + 宾语补足语) 表示“保持某人或某物的某种状态”

  • Please keep your clothes clean.
  • Put on this pair of gloves. They will keep your hands warm.
  • We should keep quiet in the library.
  • I was very tired. I couldn't keep my eyes open.

3. 不定式短语“ to... ”做状语,用以说明目的。

  • What can we do to keep our city clean?
  • We can sweep the floor to keep our classroom clean.
  • We can move the factories away from the city to keep the air clean.

4. should/shouldn't + 动词原形

  • You shouldn't throw rubbish on the floor.
  • You should put rubbish in the bin.

Unit 7. Protect the Earth

1. 情态动词

情态动词本身有一定的词义,但不能单独使用,必须与后面的动词原形(行为动词、系动词)构成句子的谓语,情态动词无人称和数的变化。

常见的情态动词有: can(could), may, must, have to, shall(should), will(would) 等。

can may must
would could should
had better need

下面是含情态动词的各种句式:

  1. 肯定句结构:主语 + 情态动词 + 动词原形 + 其他。 如:

    • You should read books now.
  2. 否定句结构:主语 + 情态动词 + not + 动词原形 + 其他。 如:

    • We shouldn't waste energy.
  3. 一般疑问句结构:情态动词 + 主语 + 动词原形 + 其他? 如:

    • -- Shll we got to the library now?
    • -- Good idea.
  4. 特殊疑问句结构:特殊疑问词 + 情态动词 + 主语 + 动词原形 + 其他? 如:

    • What should we do now?
    • We should wait for our parents?

2. 动词不定式 to 后面加动词原形

  1. use ... to ... 使用某物做某事

    • use water to clean things
    • use chopsticks to eat noodles 用筷子吃面条
    • use the nose to smell 用鼻子闻
  2. reuse sth to do sth 再利用某物做某事

    • reuse a plastic bottle to make a toy
  3. need sth to do sth 需要某物做某事

    • We need oil to drive cars.

Unit 8. Chinese New Year

1. bo going to 一般将来时

bo going to do 是一般将来时结构之一,表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划或准备做某事。

bo going to 后跟动词原形,句中一般有以下时间状语:tomorrow, next day(week, month, year...),soon(不久),tomorrow morning 等。

本单元学习 be going to ... 结构的特殊疑问句及肯定句。如

  • We are going to have a party next Monday.
  • I'm going to see my grandparents this week.
  • Is he going to play football tomorrow?
  • Who is she going to play with?

建议:总结已学过的疑问句,由疑问词引申出特殊疑问句,用多种方式训练表达。例如:

Mike is going to play football with Liu Tao tomorrow.

就这句话,我们可以提出四个问题:

  1. What is going to do with Liu Tao tomorrow?
  2. Who is going to play football with Liu Tao tomorrow?
  3. When is Mike going to play football with Liu Tao?
  4. Who is Mike going to play football with tomorrow?

2. 介词 in on at 修饰时间的用法

我们在不同的时间前面使用 inonat ,来表示做事情的时间。

介词用于举例
in一天中的早、中、晚in the morning / afternoon / evening
月份in January / February / March / April / June / July / August / September / October / November / December
季节in spring / summer / autumn / winter
in 2008 / 2012 / 2100
on星期on Sunday / Monday / Tuesday / Wednesday / Thursday / Friday / Saturday
某一天on 1 September
某一天的早、中、晚on a cold morning / Sunday afternoon
特定的节日(一天)on Children's Day
at某一时刻at 4:15
年龄at 12(years old)